Among several skills that have to be mastered in the process of EFL teaching, reading is one of the most significant. Nobody can deny that authentic literature is a marvelous way to enrich teachers’ and students’ scope of material to teach and to learn. Nevertheless, reading can carry a lot of difficulties. This research has its purpose to study in which way various types of adaptation differ from each other, to analyze if it is appropriate to use authentic fiction literature or not, and, finally, to develop a methodology that teachers and students could use to be able to solve all the problems which appear in the course of reading authentic feature texts. In this article, we have taken J.K. Jerome Three men in a boat as a piece of authentic fiction literature to use at English reading classes for B1-B2 level students of Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia. We have developed a framework which can be advised to teachers for application to facilitate the process of fiction literature comprehension. This framework involves profound practicing of reading and speaking skills by students in the following essential stages: pre-reading, reading and comprehension, vocabulary work, speaking and analysis. This framework is recommended for reading literary texts at EFL classes.
The article reveals the importance of studying axiological phraseological units at foreign language lessons in higher school in the process of forming a communicative competence that provides an opportunity for effective intercultural communication. Communication with native speakers cannot be effective without taking into account their national characteristics and national mentality. In addition, understanding the national mentality contributes to the formation of a value system for future professionals, which is an indispensable component of the educational process at university. The most vivid reflection of values, traditions and features of the perception of the world of particular peoples in the language occurs through phraseological units. The analysis of German axiological phraseological units makes it possible to determine values and anti-values in the German linguoculture that are a reflection of the national mentality and are manifested in all spheres of life of the Germans. The research methods are the following: descriptive method, analysis of lexicographical interpretations and etymology of German phraseological units; the method of component analysis to research the structure of meaning of studied units; the method of conceptual and interpretative analysis. As a result of the study of German axiological phraseological units, the following features of the German mentality were revealed: a clear delineation of the private and public sphere, the closure of the private sphere and the emotional closure of the individual; diligence and condemnation of laziness; the value of time – rigid planning and strict adherence to the plan, high pace of life; the idealization of order, the desire for orderliness; hypertrophied sense of responsibility for their actions and their consequences, foresight, caution; thrift and practicality, condemnation of prodigality. Research results can be helpful for the German language training, in professional activity of translators, linguists. Toassimilate the German axiological phraseology at foreign language lessons, the article presents interactive tasks created in the Hot Potatoes program (task for filling in passes, restoring sequences, establishing correspondences, multiple choice of answers).
The paper studies the peculiarities of realization and functioning of linguistic landscape of two multilingual cities: Kazan, the capital of the Republic of Tatarstan and the capital of Italy Rome. Comparative study of the landscape of Kazan and Rome becomes important in the course of growing cooperation between Russia, Tatarstan in particular, and Italy, as well as provides an opportunity to study the features of globalization, the implementation of language policy, the current position of languages in society and the adaptation of each city to a large flow of tourists. The aim of our work was to identify similar and different trends in the linguistic landscape of Kazan and Rome. To achieve it we have analyzed the current language policy of the two regions and conducted the analysis of the population living in them, as this is directly related to the visibility of certain languages in the city. The main results of the study reflect certain national peculiarities of the linguistic landscape of the Russian and Italian cities, in particular, the predominant position of the state languages, English as an international language and the presence of other languages of ethnic minorities, and determine the possible prospects for their further development. The practical and theoretical significance of the study lies in the possibility of using the results to optimize the processes of language planning and development in the Republic of Tatarstan and Italy.
The article is devoted to a very relevant topic – borrowings from English into German and Spanish. This way of language enrichment is one of the most important one nowadays. Borrowing helps to name objects that are new for the recipient culture or that do not have its own name in the language. This process leads to the changes of the shape of the language, to its development. In this article English language as a source of borrowings and two languages recipients – German and Spanish – are studied. English language is a language that acts as a donor for many languages, especially for the Europeans ones due to close geographical and cultural connections. In the article all the examples of borrowed vocabulary were taken from media and social network texts, since these spheres are the rapidly developing and tend to reflect all the current processes happening inside the society. The history of these borrowings is studied and descried. The conclusion about the influence of English language on Spanish and German languages is made at the end of the research.
Phraseological and parameological units being specific units of the language contain cultural information about the history, traditions and everyday life of the people speaking the language. Very often this information is encoded with the help of words used in symbolic meaning. One can observe utilizing zoomorphic and floristic components in this meaning in most of the languages. This paper studies phraseological and parameological units in the English, Tatar and Russian languages including an ornytonym (name of a bird) component. The most regular ones used in these three languages are: in English duck, cock, crow, goose, turkey, swallow, lark, hen etc. The results of the research witness that in the above-mentioned languages ornytonyms are mostly used in the symbolic meanings formed already in Ancient Egypt. We also observe names of different birds to acquire new symbolic meanings, which usually can be related to the following factors: 1) the role of the bird (usually domestic ones) in the life of the people speaking the language; 2) behaviour and characteristics of the bird being associated with some positive or negative human traits highly appreciated or condemned in the society.
The article gives an insight into the innovative teaching method called CLIL (Content Language Integrated Learning) and its possibilities in teaching the English language in the sphere of fashion. Today fashion is a rapidly developing industry; therefore, there is a growing demand for fashion specialists both in Russia and internationally. Research shows one needs to master English at an advanced level in order to work successfully in the fashion industry worldwide. The authors introduce a well-structured content-oriented innovative course Fashion and Clothes: Language and Beauty, applying a variety of integrated CLIL methods of teaching English, as the main language of the fashion industry. The authors come to the conclusion that the English course devoted to teaching fashion is important and relevant nowadays, especially, because students in Russia and many other developing countries lack opportunity to receive a fashion degree. The materials of the research may be applied by university staff and ESP teachers worldwide to provide for the successful development of students’ professional, linguistic and personal competencies.
The paper deals with the idea of creating the English-medium learning environment in middle schools as means of improving students’ English language command via learning motivation throughout their school years. The analysis is based on the research into learning environment by Russian and international scholars on the issue. The empirical part of the research is based on the analysis and interpretation of best teaching practices of some schools in the Republic of Tatarstan, which have successfully introduced English-medium learning environment in their institutions. The leading approach used by the authors is observation and classification of investigated material, interviewing, collecting, analyzing and synthesizing the data, received via interviews with teachers and school administration. The authors come to the conclusion that English-medium learning environment allows to successfully maintain to sufficiently improve school students’ foreign language command and nurture learning motivation. The materials of the research may be applied by researchers and teaching staff who are interested in creating English–speaking academic environment in their educational institutions.
The paper deals with the role of background knowledge in building the translating/interpreting competence of the students majoring in Linguistics. Methods/analyses: the leading approach used by the authors is observation, collecting and analyzing the data received via the experiment. The authors mark the main problems: lack of attention to background knowledge in teaching methodology of translation in academic major of linguistics. The article is provided by the experiment carried out with the second-year students of the Kazan Federal University. The authors come to the conclusion that background knowledge is crucial for future translators/interpreters and provide recommendations and tools to improve the academic background knowledge acquisition process for the sake of better understanding between communication agents.
The article given is dedicated to consideration of distant teaching in modern education, its comparison with intramural form of study. Significance of the research given is stipulated by requirements for innovative forms of teaching and learning resulted from contemporary social transformations. The aim of the paper is to reveal some trends of distant education at university, its advantages and disadvantages. Methods used to study the subject of the research were as follows: analysis of linguistic and methodological literature, analysis and synthesis of the data obtained, generalization and comparison of the data obtained. The results of the study are derived from evaluation of technologies used in the distance teaching process. Innovative methods of distant teaching allow to involve specialists from various educational institutions, expand information space accessible to students, and integrate Russian universities into the worldwide education system. The role of independent work to achieve high-standard study of a foreign language in the distance is substantiated. The study can be useful for researchers in the field of education, teachers of foreign languages, students and others.
The paper considers the problem of reception of the J.R.R. Tolkien’s work in Russia by readers who are not professionally engaged in literary studies. This type of reception is the response of a wide readership to the writer’s texts and means the attitude towards them. The relevance of the research topic is determined not only by the significance of the figure of J.R.R Tolkien as a writer, but also by his significant influence on world literature and culture and the need for his comprehension. The analysis of reception characteristics in relation to the socio-cultural and literary context seems timely and meets the needs of modern literary science and Tolkienism as an area of studies of Tolkien’s work. Written response of the non-professional readership to the themes of J.R.R Tolkien work previously did not become the objects of detailed scientific study, and their study seems a promising direction research. The paper identifies and analyzes the main receptive approaches of unprofessional readers to the texts of J.R.R Tolkien. The reception is presented as a dynamic process and is considered in development. This research contributes to a further deeper understanding of the work of J.R.R Tolkien, as well as the interpretations that it receives in the Russian cultural and literary context.
In the present study, we objectify the timeliness of studying trolling as a type of communicative behavior during Internet discourse. Different approaches to the concept interpretation are being considered. Trolling is defined by the author as a purposeful and motivated communicative behavior, aimed to the media scene destabilization. The comments under one of the French news article demonstrate two basic techniques of trolling: subject-oriented and object-oriented ones. Within the frameworks of object-oriented technology there are the offtoping tactics and elfing being analyzed. The subject-oriented technique is based on the individual discrediting of the person: pointing out and highlighting the incompetence of the interlocutor, the ironic expression of disagreement with his point of view, and elfing. Studying various methods of trolling makes it possible for us to distinguish four types of trolls in Internet comments: a provocateur troll, an offtoper troll, a demagogue troll and an elf troll. All of them have the same single goal to stir up the flame and enjoy the commentator’s feedback. One makes a conclusion about the necessity of a selective approach to reading the comments, with the purpose to avoid trolls, who choose their speech tactics depending on their intentions.
There are many online translation platforms available in China. Through the traffic information published by the Chinese website rankings, this paper selects five online translation platforms featured in this study as a comparative analysis of Google, Baidu, Youdao, Kingsoft and Bing. Google, Baidu and Bing Translation platforms use their powerful search engine features to integrate corpus resources and provide corresponding sources of information. Kingsoft and Youdao Translation platforms are popular universal online dictionaries. This article selects a technical text, compares translations through the five translation platforms, and combines the interface features, functional characteristics and user feedback of the five major translation platforms.
The relevance of the research problem is due to the need of optimization of the processes of foreign language training at the higher professional school. In this regard, this article aims to develop theoretical and applied models of foreign language training of future professionals in social and humanitarian fields. The leading approaches to the study of this problem are the communicative, the personal activity and the competency approaches. The main methods of the study were the comparative analysis of Russian and foreign research works, modeling and forecasting of university students’ foreign language training development, and also pedagogical experiment, the study and synthesis of innovative pedagogical experience, which helped to identify features of the content and process of effective foreign language training of students of Social Sciences and Humanities. The article suggests the possibility of modeling the foreign language training of future social and humanitarian field professionals in the conditions of modernization of higher professional education. As a result, the structure of the presented theoretical-applied model includes the motivational-need, the communicative-informative, the operational-procedural, and the result-evaluative components. The modeling process takes into account the main provisions of the foreign language communicative competence and its constituents (sub-components: linguistic, discourse, social, sociolinguistic, socio-cultural, and strategic) and the provisions of the document Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. The experimental confirmation of the effectiveness of the model has been presented. The model focuses on foreign language training of students in Social Sciences and Humanities, contributing to their readiness for intercultural communication in domestic and professional sphere. The article may be useful for higher education institutions when developing their own models for improving foreign language training.
The problem under investigation is relevant because in the modern period of globalization and internationalization the need in highly qualified specialists in the field of natural science with good knowledge of English, who can make use of the English scientific literature and perform intercultural and professional communication is great. Knowledge of English is a fundamental characteristic of professionalism, subjectivity of the expert and his desire for professional self-development. The purpose of the article is to reveal the level of motivation of learning English by biology students and identify innovative approaches aimed at increasing efficiency of forming students` motivation. Close inspection of this problem shows that the main directions in achieving the aforesaid purpose are the following: context-based teaching, including both semiotic and training models, and activity-based approach which involves a combination of educational and extracurricular work of students. There is a need to shift the emphasis in the content of the English course, namely, to increase motivation-oriented tasks for students. Selection of the content of education should be based on modern scientific achievements in biology and thus directly motivate the interest of students. It is assumed that more attention should be given to speaking practice and oral speaking on the topics that reflect learners` needs and interests and thus provoke motivation, which is important for successful language learning. The alternation of intensive and extensive reading of scientific texts in biology with regard to learners` level, with plotting their individual route, as well as organizing communication in English inside the educational group, allows to enhance the effectiveness of forming motivation to learning English. The article may be of interest to graduate students, teachers of higher educational institutions, scientific workers dealing with the problems of forming educational motivation of students studying natural sciences at university.
Depicting of life has always been object of art. Though, in a number of literary works historic and political events are represented especially critical and specific. German history of the 20th century as well as world history are full of tragic events that changed fates of the states and millions of people. These events through the prism of fictional conscience were reflected in considerable corpus of literary works of the 20th century. The article focuses on the novel by Alfred Doeblin Hamlet oder Die lange Nacht nimmt ein Ende (Tales of a Long Night) and also presents a brief review of German works created before 1980. These concepts shed light on the place of Doeblin’s novel Hamlet among other literary works which address to the theme of war and motive of Hamletianism as well as the tendency of such literal appeals. Of course, literal works that reflect history are still created and recent researches prove that. The peculiar character of the novels considered in the present article is reception of Hamlet’s image for reflecting and comprehending the historic situation of Germany. The aim of the research is to find out how the history of World War II was reflected in the novel by Doeblin Hamlet. To attain the aim comparative method and method of descriptive text analysis were applied.
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