This paper examines the impact of oil price fluctuations on Human development in Iraq. We employed UNDP statistical data in HDI and oil prices were obtained from OPEC official statistics. EGARCH model is applied to estimate the series of oil price fluctuation. Further, we applied ARDL bound test approach to estimate the long run relationship between HDI and oil price fluctuation. Evidence shows that there is a long run relationship among the variables under study. A significant impact on human development index is witness due to fluctuations in oil prices. Since the dependence of Iraqi economy on oil exports tightly align the government spending with oil revenues. Therefore, this study proposes that Government should adopt a diversified policy and invest in other sectors of the economy, such as the industrial sectors. Investment in these sectors will help to increase the output of exportable goods. Exports of these goods can earn more foreign exchange. This will reduce the heavy reliance on oil revenues. The government needs to spend more money to provide infrastructure like transport facilities and stable electricity supply. This will help encourage private companies to invest more in their economic resources by reducing the cost of doing business.
The integrative theory of law, like any social theory, needs constant updating and development in accordance with the dynamics of the development of society and the state. This requirement is more related to the practically applied component of the theory, but the conceptual basis of integrative legal thinking (the fundamental component of the theory) should also be in the research focus. This article attempts to identify and form some elements of the practical basis of integrative theory. It is given the definition of law, it is shown the elements it consists of and how they are situationally manifested in practice. The article also separately examines typical situations of the law existence as an element of practice. The article emphasizes that the law is an integral element and regulator of any socially significant practice. The law, as an element of practice, is always situationally specific. The authors emphasize that the integrative legal thinking is a necessary and core element for a lawyer. It is noted that by combining all the best that is in other concepts, the integrative theory of law contributes to the thinking development of a high-class practicing lawyer. Practical aspects of the integrative theory of law seem to be quite important and significant for the effective work of the legislator and the practicing lawyer, since they allow forming the basis of the methodology of an effective lawyer.
The article is devoted to the modeling and forecasting of socio-economic development of the region. The dependence of GRP per capita of the Belgorod region on the average annual number of employed in the economy, the consolidated budget revenues, the volume of innovative works and services, the consumer price index, the industrial production index, the balanced financial result, exports was established. The analysis of the matrix of pair correlation coefficients of the selected indicators allowed to choose as the most significant explanatory variables the consolidated budget revenues and the average annual number of employees in the economy. The models of socio-economic development of the region were built. The quality of the models was evaluated. It was revealed that the most accurate is the power regression model. The forecast of further changes in GRP per capita was built on the basis of the retrospective analysis data. The method of extrapolation based on the construction of trend models for each explanatory variable was used to carry out the forecast.
The article considers the demographic and epidemiological grounds for evolutionary transition from the economics of medical care to the public health economics; the methodology for the formation of an effective strategy of public health promotion in Russia; the modern concepts of the economy of public health; and data, calculated on this basis, such as the Human Capital Development Index, Human Development Index and the ratings of the Russian Federation in these international indices. The analysis of models of public health and the most important factors, determining the health of population (lifestyle, heredity, ecology, medicine) were presented. Also, the most significant risk factors of mortality of the Russian Federation population were considered, among which the behavioral risk factors, associated with the way of life of population, were defined. On this basis, the strategy for reduction of behavioral risk factors and for promotion of healthy lifestyle of population was formulated. The analysis of the features of State Program of the Russian Federation "Health Development" for 2013-2020, and the new program, having the same name, was carried out. These programs are connected with the development of prevention and the formation of healthy lifestyle of population (HLS) in the country. In addition, the regional targeted programs for the prevention of diseases, the formation of healthy lifestyle, and their social results were studied. The effectiveness of a comprehensive intersectoral approach to the formation of healthy lifestyle of population in the regions of Russia in modern conditions was substantiated.
The article deals with the problems of innovation activity in the Russian economy in the context of the implementation of the import substitution policy.We revealed the patterns of innovation development in sixteen types of innovation and economic activity in the conditions of Western sanctions and in the pre-sanction period.We determined the dynamics of influence of the situation in the Russian innovation field on the main macroeconomic indicators. As indicators characterizing the dynamics of innovation processes in the country, we used data on the size and structure of costs for technological innovations, differentiated by the industry basis.Using the macroeconomic indicators during analysis, we determined the indicators of the added value created, the output volume, the volume of produced innovative goods and services, as well as the indicators that characterize the movement dynamics of labor resources.On the basis of the conducted studies, we proved that the logic of import substitution in the Russian economy should critically evaluate the axiom about the expediency of forming in the country the entire chain of value created for the consumer on the scale of entire commodity groups. We have substantiated that the development of industries that are closest to the final consumer along the value chain is the most preferable in the Russian economy.
In the current Russian civil law, the loan agreement is one of the central institutions of the Russian law of obligations, since if payment for the goods and its transfer are separated by a temporary interval, there is a loan from one party to another. The same applies to the payment deferment or advance payment for the works (services). A similar situation can arise in almost any contractual construction, when one participant in a commodity turnover transfers to another some goods, performs works, renders services with the condition of returning their equivalent and, as a rule, paying remuneration. Consequently, the scope of application of the norms of paragraph 1 of Chapter 42 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation is much broader than just a loan agreement. Loan and credit agreements refer to the "credit" concept in the economic sense. In civil law, the “credit” category is used in the narrow sense as an obligation from a credit agreement and does not cover all the above relations. Thus, the “credit” concept cannot be considered as a general concept in relation to all cases of the value transfer from one subject to another. From the point of view of the law, the “loan” category corresponds to the “credit” category in the economic sense. In this regard, the clarification of the place of borrowed obligation in the system of the Russian law of obligations is of great theoretical and practical importance.
The purpose of the paper is to explore measure and analyze the impact of unequal distribution of income and its impact of poverty in Iraq. Poverty is a multidimensional concept and it has various antecedents and consequences. The importance of poverty as a social issue is undoubted and it is among the millennium development goals of United Nations too to eradicate poverty from the world. Present study is focused on the determination of possible link between inequality in distribution of income in Iraq and its possible aftermaths on the phenomenon of poverty. Detailed review of the literature has been performed in order to establish the conceptual foundation of poverty and Disparities in the Distribution of Income in Iraq, which is supported by secondary data. The findings of the present study can be used for the government officials, policy makers and organizations working for socioeconomic development through poverty reduction in Iraq, moreover, the study also presented a model for less developed countries like Iraq to make the findings of this study as benchmark. The paper is concluded not before some of the suggestions and policy guidelines are proposed to reduce the gap caused by disparities in the distribution of Income in Iraq.
The article addresses the concept of transport service quality as an essential tool for improving customer focus and the efficiency of rail transport in the implementation of cargo traffic. Issues have been investigated on current reforms going on in the railway transport market with regard to transport service. Valid procedures (both foreign and Russian ones) have been studied on freight owners’ evaluating transport service quality including All-Russian Project “Quality Index”. By this method, dynamics of change has been assessed in the fulfillment of basic indices of transport service quality, and causes of their inadequacy to ideal fulfillment have been described. Presented is the transport service quality management system for freight owners. The system is based on combination of natural assessment methods, optimization of quality level and assessment of efficiency of measures to increase the quality level. Based on logics of assuring transport service quality, a sequence has been proposed to analyze the transport quality indices systems: “quality of technical means → quality of operational work → quality of transport service”. Moreover, the quality of a subsequent system is the most objective characteristics of the previous system (systems) quality. It has been concluded that one of the major priorities in development of railway transport is to assure high-level quality of transport service. In addition to the most complete satisfaction of clients with railway transport services, the service quality makes it possible to increase attractiveness of railway companies in the transportation field and is the most important factor of competitiveness and the most promising for development as compared with alternative price factors.
The paper discusses the impact of the competition level on the sustainable development of a regional market in order to manage competitive and industrial policies. The authors proposed to calculate the impact of the competition level on the economic affordability of food products to the population according to the Herfindahl-Hirschman index. For this purpose, the paper determines the correlation coefficients between the Herfindahl-Hirschman index and indicators affecting the economic availability of milk for the population of the Russian Federation. According to the data for 2010-2016, the market of milk and dairy products of the region of the Russian Federation (by the example of the Republic of Tatarstan) was analyzed. On the basis of the approach proposed, a regression model was obtained depending on the level of competition on the share of population expenditures on milk and dairy products. The proposed tool can be applied in any territory, what determines its universality.
Today music formats occupy a predominant number of frequencies in the Russian FM-range. Despite digital television and radio broadcasting conversion and the related internal and external modernization of the industry, radio stations continue to actively compete for the listener by offering new approaches to broadcasting and winning an audience. The number of radio stations in the modern world remains at a consistently high level, although, it is understandable that the dynamics of its growth does not have the speed it used to have a hundred years ago: for example, the number of radio stations in the United States during “the golden era” of broadcasting from 1927 to 1940 years had grown 116 times (Sterling and Kittross, 2001). Today, one of the rarest music formats in Russia is the Easy Listening format, which is partly represented by the Relax FM radio station. In addition to music programs, the Relax FM radio broadcastings include thematic rubrics and short speech programs that make a significant contribution to the overall concept of this radio station. The article discusses the verbal components at the radio station of the Easy Listening format, their functions and features. In order to analyze the speech elements of the studied radio, the methods of observation and content analysis, as well as some other empirical and general scientific methods were used. The results were interpreted on the basis of the percentage of music and speech on the airwaves, as well as the ratio of the average timing of the commercial break, built using verbalics, and the average timing of the thematic category. In addition, the speech analysis of verbal components showed how the difference in the essential approach to speech in the advertising unit and in the thematic rubric affects the general speech discourse of the radio. Thus, the main functions of verbal components on the radio station of the Easy Listening format can definitely be considered to be informational, advertising, recreational and educational functions. The features of speech components are in the field of message semantics, as well as in terms of vocabulary and intonation, aimed at supporting the general concept of broadcasting. A separate speech group consists of advertising messages that are significantly different from the specific mood of the radio, but which, in doing so, are designed to support the very existence of the radio station. These provisions ultimately entail the possibility of new research in the field of linguistics of radio programs, psycholinguistics, and the management of the broadcasting industry.
The article considers the features of development of territorial branding in the city of Kazan and in the Republic of Tatarstan. The stages of creation of brands of Kazan, Sviyazhsk and Bolgar, as well as the brands of the Republic of Tatarstan “Heritage of Tatarstan” and “Visit Tatarstan” are researched. The main components of the brand “Heritage of Tatarstan” have been identified and described. The paper shows, that in order to improve the efficiency of territorial branding, the new brand “Visit Tatarstan” was created in the Republic of Tatarstan in 2016. It is designed to complement and strengthen the brand “Heritage of Tatarstan”, which has already existed since 2014. The article reveals the most important tasks of the brand “Visit Tatarstan”, and defines the features of its visual style. The implementation of the project involves two directions - external and internal. The first is based on the advertising program, the second combines all the components of tourism: souvenirs, national attractions and travel agencies.The role of territorial branding in the development of various types of tourism in the Republic of Tatarstan is shown. Thus, the article concludes that the formation of modern territorial brands can give a big return in the form of creation of effective tourist destination in the region. Moreover, this positive experience in the near future can be successfully used not only in the Republic of Tatarstan, but also in other regions of the Russian Federation.
The main trend of mass media evolution in the world is the desire for creation of the information environment, primarily related to the latest occurrence of digital technologies. Today, Russian and Western journalism is on the eve of a transition to a new level. Over the past decades, all traditional mass media models have become digital. These changes contribute to the active development of “new mass media", that is, the acquisition of their increasing relevance in public life. This paper identifies features of the modern mass media space. The main features of the “new mass media”, its characteristics are described. The paper is devoted to the analysis of the development of new mass media in the Republic of Tatarstan. The main goal of the work is to identify the characteristics of promotion of Tatar-speaking mass media in the Internet environment in the context of the process of their multimediaization and the emergence of convergent editions, forecasting the future vector of development of national Tatar-speaking journalism. In the national information space, new mass media are becoming increasingly active and successful. They are gradually replacing traditional mass media resources. However, their promotion tactics can be applied to traditional mass media. This applies primarily to reformatting the same material for different social networks, primarily for multimedia. Thus, the need arises for the convergence of traditional journalism. The authors found that in the present conditions the most convergent publications among the Tatar-speaking mass media are Tatar-inform, Internet and Azatlyk Radiosy (Radio Liberty).
The aim of the study is to examine the factors influencing Vocational guidance of self-definition as a measure of specialists competence level via document analysis as a qualitative research method. In order to determine the factors of Vocational guidance that influences self-definition as a specialist’s competence, we first compiled Vocational guidance perspectives on self-definition in three categories: as a phenomenon of public consciousness, as a problem of self-determining personality and as a psychological and pedagogical practice. The results showed that these factors are classified into two groups of external factors and internal factor. Internal harmonization was primarily aimed at reconciling different views between representatives of this aspect and external harmonization was aimed at convergence of people’s positions representing different aspects. In conclusion, scientists and practitioners simply have to work, on the whole, and contribute to the development of human and labor resources at the level of the whole society, and help concrete people to find a worthy place in the economical and social life of the country.
This article is devoted to the issue of the legal status of entities engaged in business activities related to the transportation of oil and petroleum products through trunk pipelines (hereinafter referred to as the TP). The authors attempt to disclose their legal features as the subjects, operating in the conditions of natural monopoly, to identify features of their legal personality, as well as the content of their rights and obligations. Due to the "natural monopoly" of the laws governing the transportation of petroleum products, it is less relevant to the legal requirements in this regard. In their study, they concluded that the law on the transportation of petroleum products should focus on five points: the requirement to submit the reports on their current activities in a certain time and manner, review 10 of the Federal Law "On Protection of Competition", the legal acts approved the standards and basic criteria for the information disclosure by the natural monopoly, the inadmissibility of free pricing and the obligatory use by the subjects of marginal tariffs established by law, adhere the subject to the contractual form of providing oil transportation services that is strictly regulated by law.
Traditional approaches to modeling economic cycles, which have been formed within the theory of economic growth, are based mainly on the use of complex multidimensional methods for constructing differential equations of production functions (Abalkin, 2002; Braudel, 1984; Kondratyev, 1989; Marat et al., 2016; Yakovets, 1997). In our opinion, the main disadvantage of such models is their linearity, which forms the predetermined results of simulated phenomena. The development of so-called trend models based on the use of a simple mathematical apparatus (the development of polynomial, exponential, linear and other functions) as part of conducting statistical analysis of time series is quite a popular mechanism for constructing economic cycles. No less common tool for diagnosing cyclical fluctuations in the economy is the mechanism for developing production functions.In our opinion, modern economic systems are characterized by a very wide range of uncertainties, what predetermines an appropriate analysis of a significant number of factors. In addition, the formed system of administrative markets greatly distorts the classical tools of market regulation, what forms a special mode of generation of economic cycles. Thus, the use of traditional mechanisms and tools for diagnosing cyclical fluctuations in the economy does not fully contribute to objective modeling of economic processes, what affects the methodological tools used in forecasting economic trends, accordingly. This predetermines the need to develop new methods adapted to the new realities for evaluating economic cycles and factors generating them. This paper is devoted to finding methods for solving this issue.
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